Replacing Pipe From House To Septic Tank®

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Sewer Pipe và Septic Tank và Drainfield Build và InstallChapter 13 of How to lớn Build Your Dream trang chủ © 2020 POST a QUESTION or comment about how lớn identify the architectural style of buildings and building components tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website.
This article series provides an updated version of Hubbard Cobb"s Your Dream Home, illustrated by Sigman-Ward, first published by Wm. H. Wise & Co. New York, 1950.We also provide an ARTICLE INDEX for this topic, or you can try the page vị trí cao nhất or bottom tìm kiếm BOX as a quick way lớn find information you need.

Sewer Piping & Sewage Disposal Installation

Plumbing The House Sewer Pipe

The cast-iron soil pipe should extend for at least one section (5 feet) beyond the house. After this, you can use contemporary ABS or PVC plastic sewer piping, cast-iron soil pipe or vitrified-clay pipe to lớn carry the waste to the public sewer line or to a private onsite septic system .

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Clay sewer pipe is the least expensive, but it has the drawback that seepage through the pipe joints will attract tree roots, which in time will at many homes clog up the line. This danger can be reduced by installing copper washers inside each joint.

The copper will kill any tree roots that come in tương tác with it. Clay pipe can be joined with cement mortar. The sections are placed together and oakum is packed into the bell khổng lồ prevent the mortar from getting into the line. The mortar is then worked into the joint, either by hand or using a joint runner.

Cast-iron soil pipe can be joined with caulked joints or with special threaded joints. ABS or PVC pipe (more modern alternatives) as well as properly-installed cast iron pipe will last 20-40 years or longer. (The original text said "indefinitely" which was perhaps a bit optimistic.)

If you are building your trang chủ on a lot where there is a near-by đô thị sewer line, you vì not have much to worry about as far as sewage-disposal goes.

There will probably be a slight charge involved for opening up the main so that your line can be attached and you may find that you will not be able to lay the sewer pipes from your house khổng lồ the main yourself, but your worries are few compared khổng lồ those of building in outlying districts where each house must have its own private sewage-disposal plant.

This is a section of Chapter 13 of BUILD YOUR DREAM home at - online encyclopedia of building và environmental inspection, testing, diagnosis, repair, và problem prevention advice.

See details about sewer piping at SEWER LINE SPECIFICATIONS

Cesspools & Septic Tanks

There are two types of private sewage-disposal systems that you could use in the 1950s. One is the cesspool & the other is the septic tank.

Of the two, the septic tank is by far the superior, and in many localities it is the only system that may be used.

Building a Cesspool

The cesspool is more or less out of date today, và its main advantage was the fact that it is a very simple và inexpensive system to lớn install. It consists of a large hole in the ground that is lined on the inside with rocks or concrete blocks set up without mortar.

The sewage from the house flows into this tank và the liquids pass through the openings in the rocks or blocks và are absorbed into the earth. The đứng đầu of the cesspool is provided with a tightly fitting concrete lid to keep out insects và vermin.

The first great drawback khổng lồ this type of system is that it can easily contaminate wells or near-by water supplies. The liquids that are absorbed into the ground are by no means pure & slowly but surely the earth around the cesspool becomes contaminated.

Even when the cesspool is below a well, there is still a chance that, due to rock formations, the seepage from the cesspool will reach the water supply.

Cesspools are of little use in ground that is low-lying & wet because the earth will not absorb the liquids from the cesspool & you will have lớn have it pumped out repeatedly. In essence, it won"t work.

Watch out: a cesspool may successfully dispose of sewage effluent into the surrounding soil, but because most of the disposal is occurring at a depth greater than two feet there is little oxygen to tư vấn one of the two bacteria types (aerobic bacteria) needed lớn break down the sewage pathogens. As a result a cesspool will not successfullly treat sewage effluent. That means that sewage effluent can flow into & contaminate nearby wells or waterways.

See details at CESSPOOLS - home


Septic Tank & Drainfield Systems

The septic tank works on ail entirely different principle from the cesspool. 

The waste from the house flows into a watertight tank. It remains there for twenty-four hours or so while the bacteria reduce many of the solids to a liquid state.

We hotline this effluent holding time - a necessary interval khổng lồ permit grease & floating solids to coagulate at the top of the septic tank and other sludge lớn settle to the bottom.

At the end of this interval, the liquids - claified effluent - flow out of the tank into a leaching field made of drain-tile. These tiles are placed fairly near the surface (usually 24" or less, deeper in cold climates) & this allows air to lớn get to the bacteria needed to break down sewage pathogens & also lớn permit a portion of the liquid effluent lớn evaporate.

There are several misunderstandings about a septic tank.

In the first place, not all the solids that enter the tank are reduced to lớn a liquid state & flow out into the tile field. More than 50% of these solids remain inside the tank as sludge. In time the sludge will accumulate to such a degree that the tank will not operate properly until it has been pumped out.

Second, the liquids that flow out of the tank are by no means pure. The tank should never be allowed khổng lồ empty out into streams, lakes or rivers as it will contaminate them.

You can build your own septic tank, but you may find that the ones of metal or concrete that are ready-made are more practical for your purposes. Building a property functioning septic tank is quite a job. Ready-built tanks are not expensive and will give good service. Some of them come complete with the tile for the disposal field.

See details at SEPTIC TANKS - home


See the basics of septic system kiến thiết at SEPTIC SYSTEM kiến thiết BASICS - home

Building a Cesspool

Note:Cesspools are no longer permitted và are not recommended for nearly all situations. The text that follows, from 1950, is retained to lớn give a history of how cesspools were constructed.

If you find that it is practical to lớn use a cesspool rather than a septic tank, your first job is to locate it as far as possible from any wells or other sources of water. It should be at least 100 feet from any well. The size of the cesspool will depend upon the soil conditions & the number of members in the household.

For the average family và in average soil, a cesspool 7 feet deep và about 7 feet in diameter should be sufficient. Actually, you will have to dig down a little deeper than 7 feet so that when the lid is on top of the cesspool, you can cover it with topsoil for planting.

After the hole & a trench for the line from the house to lớn the cesspool have been dug, the job of lining the avails is undertaken. If there is a lot of native stone around, you can use it and it will be perfectly adequate. The trick, however, is to build so that as you go up, the tank becomes smaller in diameter.

This is necessary in order to provide a small opening for the cover. Ordinary concrete blocks are much easier khổng lồ work with than stones. If you wish, you can get special masonry blocks made for cesspools. They are put together with a tongue-and-groove joint và have holes in them to allow liquids inside the tank khổng lồ flow out.

The line from the house to lớn the cesspool should be laid with a slight downward pitch (1/8" to 1/4" per foot of horizontal distance).

Building Your Own Septic Tank


Fig: 39. Detail of the construction of a single-chamber septic tank. Note: this drawing is slightly askew. The septic tank bottom should be as level as possible và the outlet opening will be a few inches lower than the inlet pipe. . We never want the outlet to lớn be above the inlete to lớn the tank.

Note: home made septic tanks can be very dangerous - risking collapse and a fatality if someone falls-in; in addition if the tank is under-sized it"s likely to lead lớn early septic system failure. We recommend use of concrete or plastic or fiberglass septic tanks available from local plumbing và septic suppliers - Ed.

Figs. 39 (above) and 40 (below) show two types of septic tank that can be built out of poured concrete or concrete masonry-blocks.

The tank shown in Fig. 39 is by far the easier one to construct, và it will provide a very satisfactory means of sewage-disposal except in locations where the disposal field is limited in size or where the soil is very tight.


Fig. 40. A septic tank with a dosing chamber or pumping chamber. The pump moves effluent lớn the disposal field. A dosing system sends effluent from the tank to the disposal field at periodic intervals or based on an effluent cấp độ float control. A simple effluent pump, not a dosing system, moves effulent khổng lồ a disposal field that may be up-hill from the septic tank.

Under the latter conditions, the type of tank shown in Fig. 40 should be used because it has a siphon arrangement that provides intermittent discharge of the liquids in the tank. This intermittent discharge gives the soil in the disposal field a chance to get rid of one discharge before the next occurs.

Xem thêm: " Flange Là Gì ? Tên Tiếng Anh Của Các Loại Mặt Bích Flange Là Gì

The single-chamber septic tank is not difficult khổng lồ construct. The kích cỡ of the tank will depend on the number of persons in the household. A 500-gallon capacity is the minimum, and this will serve a household of four persons

If there are six members in the family, the kích thước should be increased khổng lồ 600 gallons. For a 500-gallon tank, the width should be S", the length S" and the depth 5". The inlet should be 9" below the vị trí cao nhất of the tank and should be fitted with a sanitary tee. The outlet line to lớn the disposal field is placed 12" below the top and this also has a sanitary tee.

Note: Current building và plumbing standards require larger septic tanks for most homes in most of the world. Typically a 1,000 gallon tank or larger will be required, adding tư vấn for our recommendation of purchase of a pre-fabricated septic tank. We retain the original author"s home-made septic tank text for interested readers.


Fig. 41. Laying out a septic tank for an owner-built septic tank. Be sure to check with your building department for permits & approvals of the septic tank design, size, location, materials.

Fig. 41 shows how the tank is laid out on the site before the excavation work is done. Forms for the tank should be constructed sufficiently level và solid so that they will not be forced out of place by the weight of the concrete. See Fig. 42.


Fig. 42. Construction of forms for septic tank.

Fig. 43 (below) shows how the đứng top of the tank can be cast in sections out of concrete, complete with metal handles so that they can be easily removed for cleaning the tank.


Fig. 43. Forms for making precast tops for septic tank. Note: the original illustration above does not provide convenient septic tank cleanout access covers & risers, instead requiring the user lớn remove a large heavy concrete section of septic tank cover. The larger opening is unsafe, increasing the risk of a fatal fall into the septic tank. A better design provides a suitable opening, perhaps 2x2" over the septic tank inlet & outlet to lớn permit inspection và pumping / cleaning.

Building a septic tank with siphon or effluent pumping chamber is somewhat more complicated than building the single-chamber tank. The large chamber in this tank should have the same dimensions as those used for the single-chamber tank. The dosing chamber should have a minimum width of 3" and length of 6".

This will be adequate for four persons or less. For a household of six persons, the width can remain the same but the length should be increased khổng lồ 7".

See details about how khổng lồ specify the required kích thước of a septic tank at SEPTIC TANK size - home

Watch out: because an improperly-built or installed septic tank can kill someone, be sure to đánh giá SEPTIC TANK SAFETY - home

Laying Out a Septic-Tank Disposal System


The septic tank should be positioned at least 50 feet from the house proper.

See details all of the required septic tank & drainfield clearance distances at CLEARANCE DISTANCES, SEPTIC SYSTEM - home

ABS or PVC plastic or cast iron pipe can be used lớn connect the tank to lớn the house drainage system.

Fig. 44. Laying sewer soil pipe. A simple grade stick is used to lớn insure that each pipe has the proper amount of pitch or slope down lớn the septic tank.

The first section of tile can be joined to lớn the cast-iron (or other) soil pipe extending from the house with cement mortar or with a fitting designed for the pipe materials involved, which is also used for the following sections of sewer line pipe.

But for cast iron sewer piping, be sure that you pack oakum into the bell ends first to prevent the mortar from seeping into the line, & make your connections as tight as possible because if you vì chưng not, you will be troubled with tree roots that get into the sewer line and clog it up.


Fig. 45. Use of grade cord lớn get the proper pitch khổng lồ the sewer line.

The septic tank cannot be constructed in accordance with the plans given earlier in this section. From the outlet side of the tank, a line of soil-pipe with sealed joints is run for about 15 feet. This line, as well as the line from the house, should have a slight downward pitch.

The house line should be pitched 1" in every 10", while the line coming out the outlet side of the septic tank should be pitched 1" for every 20".

(Some standards require 1/8" to 1/4" drop per horizontal foot of run.) See Figs. 44 & 45. The end of the outlet line from the septic tank is connected lớn a distributing box


Fig. 46. A distribution box made out of concrete.

The D-box or Distribution Box receives septic effluent from the septic tank và distributes it among drainfield lines where ultimately the effluent is drained into the soil for further processing by soil bacteria. Synonyms for drainfield include septic leach field, soakaway bed, leaching bed.

Details of septic effluent distribution boxes or D-boxes are at D-BOX INSTALL REPAIR - home


Fig. 47. Suggested layout for septic tank distribution field.

as shown in Fig. 46. This box can be constructed with extra openings that arc plugged for the time being but can be opened up at some future date if additional lines in the disposal field are required. The feed lines coming out of the distributing box should be pitched 1" for every 20", và it should be made with caulked joints.

Fig. 47 shows the arrangement for a disposal field on cấp độ ground. The number of feet of tile and the number of branches will depend on soil conditions & on the number of persons in the household.

For the average-size household and where the soil is not too sandy or clayey but is medium as far as drainage goes, there should be four branches lớn the line và the total number of linear feet of 4" drain-tile should be about 350.

The septic disposal field can be made with ordinary 4" clay tile with open joints or you can use special perforated drain pipes that come in standard 4-foot lengths.

Each branch of the line should be given a slight slope (1/8" /ft), but this should not be over 6" to every 100 feet, the maximum length of any line.

The drain-tile should never be laid too deeply in the ground as this will defeat the whole purpose of the disposal field.

A depth of 18" to lớn 24" below the surface is about right in most cases. A trench six inches deeper than this should be dug và a layer of gravel 6" deep put down for the tile to rest upon. Pieces of tar paper are placed over the joints between the tile sections, which are then covered with another layer of gravel. Finally, straw is placed on vị trí cao nhất of the gravel and the soil is put back.

We give clearance distances for septic tanks and drainfields in a links cited earlier in this chapter.

Details of septic drainfield location are at SEPTIC DRAINFIELD LOCATION

Details of septic drainfield kích cỡ are at SEPTIC DRAINFIELD SIZE

Also see these typical SEPTIC SYSTEM DRAWINGS

...Continue readingat PLUMBING MATERIALS danh sách for the basic house - next section of this chapter, or go to lớn book contents at BUILD YOUR DREAM HOME, or select a topic from the closely-related articles below, or see the complete ARTICLE INDEX.This entire chapter is also available as PLUMBING SYSTEM INSTALLATION , or as a PDF image at THE HOUSE PLUMBING SYSTEM original page images.Or see these sections of Chapter 13 - PLUMBING SYSTEM INSTALLATION SEPTIC TANK, DRAINFIELD INSTALLATION Or see theseRecommended ArticlesBUILD YOUR DREAM trang chủ D-BOX INSTALL REPAIR DRAIN và SEWER PIPING - home SEPTIC CLEARANCE DISTANCES SEPTIC SYSTEM kiến thiết BASICS - home SEPTIC TANK kiến thiết DEPTH SEPTIC TANK, DRAINFIELD INSTALLATION SEPTIC TANK CONCRETE SEPTIC TANKS, FIBERGLASS / PLASTIC WASTEWATER TREATMENT BASICS Suggested citation for this web pageSEPTIC TANK, DRAINFIELD INSTALLATION at - online encyclopedia of building và environmental inspection, testing, diagnosis, repair, và problem prevention advice.

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